|FIDE Laws of Chess|
|The FIDE Laws of Chess cover over-the-board
The English text is the authentic version of the Laws of Chess, which was adopted at the 71st FIDE Congress at Istanbul (Turkey) November 2000, coming into force on 1 July 2001.
In these Laws the words 'he', 'him' and 'his' include 'she' and 'her'.
The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by studying analogous situations, which are discussed in the Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, sound judgement and absolute objectivity. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgement and thus prevent him from finding the solution to a problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors.
FIDE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view.
A member federation is free to introduce more detailed rules provided they:
|RULES OF PLAY|
|Article 1: The nature and objectives of the game of chess|
The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their pieces alternately on a square board called a 'chessboard'. The player with the white pieces commences the game. A player is said to 'have the move', when his opponent's move has been made.
The objective of each player is to place the opponent's king 'under attack' in such a way that the opponent has no legal move which would avoid the 'capture' of the king on the following move. The player who achieves this goal is said to have 'checkmated' the opponent's king and to have won the game. The opponent whose king has been checkmated has lost the game.
If the position is such that neither player can possibly checkmate, the game is drawn.
|Article 2: The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard|
The chessboard is composed of an 8x8 grid of 64 equal
squares alternately light (the 'white' squares) and dark (the 'black'
At the beginning of the game one player has 16 light-coloured pieces (the 'white' pieces); the other has 16 dark-coloured pieces (the 'black' pieces): These pieces are as follows:
The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as follows:
The eight vertical columns of squares are called 'files'. The eight horizontal rows of squares are called ranks'. A straight line of squares of the same colour, touching corner to corner, is called a 'diagonal'.
|Article 3: The moves of the pieces|
It is not permitted to move a piece to a square occupied by a piece of the same colour. If a piece moves to a square occupied by an opponent's piece the latter is captured and removed from the chessboard as part of the same move. A piece is said to attack an opponent's piece if the piece could make a capture on that square according to Articles 3.2 to 3.8.
The bishop may move to any square along a diagonal on which it stands.
The rook may move to any square along the file or the rank on which it stands.
The queen may move to any square along the file, the rank or a diagonal on which it stands.
When making these moves the bishop, rook or queen may not move over any intervening pieces.
The knight may move to one of the squares nearest to that on which it stands but not on the same rank, file or diagonal.
|3.8||a. There are two different ways of moving the king, by:
such pieces cannot themselves move.
Declaring a check is not obligatory.
No piece can be moved that will expose its own king to check or leave its own king in check.
|Article 4: The act of moving the pieces|
Each move must be made with one hand only.
Provided that he first expresses his intention (e.g. by saying "j'adoube" or "I adjust"), the player having the move may adjust one or more pieces on their squares.
Except as provided in Article 4.2, if the player having the move deliberately touches on the chessboard
If none of the pieces touched can be moved or captured, the player may make any legal move.
A player forfeits his right to a claim against his opponent's violation of Article 4.3 or 4.4, once he deliberately touches a piece.
When, as a legal move or part of a legal move, a piece has been released on a square, it cannot then be moved to another square. The move is considered to have been made when all the relevant requirements of Article 3 have been fulfilled.
|Article 5: The completion of the game|
|Article 6: The chess clock|
'Chess clock' means a clock with two time displays,
connected to each other in such a way that only one of them can run at one
Each time display has a 'flag'. Immediately after a flag falls, the requirements of Article 6.2(a) must be checked.
Before the start of the game the arbiter decides where the chess clock is placed.
At the time determined for the start of the game the clock of the player who has the white pieces is started.
If neither player is present initially, the player who has the white pieces shall lose all the time that elapses until he arrives; unless the rules of the competition specify or the arbiter decides otherwise..
Any player who arrives at the chessboard more than one hour after the scheduled start of the session shall lose the game unless the rules of the competition specify or the arbiter decides otherwise.
A flag is considered to have fallen when the arbiter observes the fact or when either player has made a valid claim to that effect.
Except where Articles 5.1 or one of the Articles 5.2 (a), (b) and (c) apply, if a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player. However, the game is drawn, if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player's king by any possible series of legal moves, even with the most unskilled counterplay.
Every indication given by the clocks is considered to be conclusive in the absence of any evident defect. A chess clock with an evident defect shall be replaced. The arbiter shall use his best judgement when determining the times to be shown on the replacement chess clock.
If both flags have fallen and it is impossible to establish which flag fell first, the game shall continue.
If an irregularity occurs and/or the pieces have to be restored to a previous position, the arbiter shall use his best judgement to determine the times to be shown on the clocks. He shall also, if necessary, adjust the clock's move counter.
Screens, monitors, or demonstration boards showing the current position on the chessboard, the moves and the number of moves made, and clocks which also show the number of moves, are allowed in the playing hall. However, the player may not make a claim based on information shown in this manner.
|Article 7: Irregularities|
If a game has begun with colours reversed, then it shall continue, unless the arbiter rules otherwise.
If a player displaces one or more pieces, he shall re-establish the correct position on his own time. If necessary, either the player or his opponent shall stop the clocks and ask for the arbiter's assistance. The arbiter may penalise the player who displaced the pieces.
If during a game it is found that pieces have been displaced from their squares, the position before the irregularity shall be re-instated. If the position immediately before the irregularity cannot be identified, the game shall continue from the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. The clocks shall be adjusted according to Article 6.14. The game shall then continue from this re-instated position.
|Article 8: The recording of the moves|
In the course of play each player is required to record
his own moves and those of his opponent in the correct manner, move after
move, as clearly and legibly as possible, in the algebraic notation
(Appendix E), on the 'scoresheet' prescribed for the competition.
The scoresheet shall be visible to the arbiter throughout the game.
The scoresheets are the property of the organisers of the event.
If a player has less than five minutes left on his clock and does not have additional time of 30 seconds or more added with each move, then he is not obliged to meet the requirements of Article 8.1. Immediately after one flag has fallen the player must update his scoresheet completely before moving a piece on the chessboard.
If the scoresheets cannot be brought up to date showing that a player has overstepped the allotted time, the next move made shall be considered as the first of the following time period, unless there is evidence that more moves have been made.
At the conclusion of the game both players shall sign both scoresheets, indicating the result of the game. Even if incorrect, this result shall stand, unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
|Article 9: The drawn game|
The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by the player having the move, when the same position, for at least the third time (not necessarily by sequential repetition of moves)
Positions as in (a) and (b) are considered the same, if
the same player has the move, pieces of the same kind and colour occupy the
same squares, and the possible moves of all the pieces of both players are
The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by the player having the move, if
If the player makes a move without having claimed the draw he loses the right to claim, as in Article 9.2 or 9.3, on that move.
If a player claims a draw as in Article 9.2 or 9.3, he shall immediately stop both clocks. He is not allowed to withdraw his claim.
The game is drawn when a position is reached from which a checkmate cannot occur by any possible series of legal moves, even with the most unskilled play. This immediately ends the game.
|Article 10: Quickplay Finish|
A 'quickplay finish' is the last phase of a game, when all the remaining moves must be made in a limited time.
If the player, having the move, has less than two minutes left on his clock, he may claim a draw before his flag falls. He shall stop the clocks and summon the arbiter.
If both flags have fallen and it is impossible to establish which flag fell first the game is drawn.
|Article 11: Scoring|
Unless announced otherwise in advance, a player who wins his game, or wins by forfeit, scores one point (1), a player who loses his game, or forfeits scores no points (0) and a player who draws his game scores a half point (1/2).
|Article 12: The conduct of the players|
The players shall take no action that will bring the game of chess into disrepute.
During play the players are forbidden to make use of any
notes, sources of information, advice, or to analyse on another chessboard.
Players who have finished their games shall be considered to be spectators.
Players are not allowed to leave the 'playing venue'
without permission from the arbiter. The playing venue is defined as the
playing area, rest rooms, refreshment area, area set aside for smoking and
other places as designated by the arbiter.
It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner whatsoever. This includes unreasonable claims or offers of a draw.
Infraction of any part of the Articles 12.1 to 12.5 shall lead to penalties in accordance with Article 13.4.
Persistent refusal by a player to comply with the Laws of Chess shall be penalised by loss of the game. The arbiter shall decide the score of the opponent.
If both players are found guilty according to Article 12.7, the game shall be declared lost by both players.
|Article 13: The role of the arbiter (see Preface)|
The arbiter shall see that the Laws of Chess are strictly observed.
The arbiter shall act in the best interest of the competition. He should ensure that a good playing environment is maintained and that the players are not disturbed. He shall supervise the progress of the competition.
The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players are short of time, enforce decisions he has made and impose penalties on players where appropriate.
The arbiter can apply one or more of the following penalties:
The arbiter may award either or both players additional time in the event of external disturbance of the game.
The arbiter must not intervene in a game except in cases described by the Laws of Chess. He shall not indicate the number of moves made, except in applying Article 8.5, when at least one player has used all his time. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a player that his opponent has completed a move.
Spectators and players in other games are not to speak about or otherwise interfere in a game. If necessary, the arbiter may expel offenders from the playing venue.
|Article 14: FIDE|
Member federations may ask FIDE to give an official decision about problems relating to the Laws of Chess.